Bananas (Musaceae) are one of the world’s most common fruit crops and the oldest medicinal plants that are used to treat a variety of infections. There has been recent interest in elucidating the efficiency of the naturally active ingredients, particularly the antimicrobials, in this plant.
This review begins with a short background of the banana plant and its cultivars as well as a brief description of its parts. Different experimental tests of the antimicrobial effects and the responsible bioactive compounds of the banana part extracts are then elaborated.
A variety of recent and evolving applications of banana parts in the development of functional bakery, dairy, beverage, and meat products as a wheat substitute, fiber/prebiotic source, fat/sucrose substitute, and natural antioxidant are also discussed.
Finally, the recent challenges and opportunities presented by different banana parts in creating bio-packaging materials and bactericidal nanoparticles are addressed. This plant contains a variety of antimicrobial substances, including dopamine, gentisic acid, ferulic acid, lupeol, and 3-carene. However, few studies have been conducted on its use as a bio-preservative in food products; it should also be seen as a natural source of both antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.
It offers a potentially simple eco-friendly alternative to antibacterial and fungicidal agents rather than chemicals. Low cost, reliable methods for purifying these compounds from banana waste could be useful for food storage and creating more value-added bio-packaging products for perishable food goods.
The banana plant is the fourth most popular food crop in developing countries, after wheat, rice, and maize, which come in a range of varieties and cultivars. Extracts of banana plant parts, such as peel, pseudo-stems, and flowers have possible antimicrobial activity, which should be further investigated for their safety aspects.
Accordingly, it is possible to use these extracts, especially of the species M. acuminata, as bio-preservatives in foods and beverages to control unfavorable microbial growth. Further studies are required to purify the responsible bioactive compounds at the lowest possible expense to meet the marketplace’s demands.
Reducing emissions resulting from banana plant waste could be achieved by producing sustainable packaging using these plant parts. More studies are required to identify and produce more eco-environmentally biodegradable materials and nanoparticles that have no harmful effect on the atmosphere.
Website Link (Journal article from Wiley)