Utilization of eggshell waste in calcium-fortified foods and other industrial applications: A review

Graphical abstract for upcycling eggshell


  • Global production of eggs leads to waste like eggshell and eggshell membrane
  • Eggshell waste being rich in calcium can be utilized in fortified food products
  • Processing of eggshell waste and calcium carbonate reactions are described
  • Eggshell waste has quite applications in food, agricultural, medical and textiles


Greater consumption and utilization of chicken eggs worldwide prompts an expanded amount disposed of egg waste, mainly eggshell and eggshell membrane. The significant challenge with the generation of these massive waste products is the environmental impact. From an industrial point of view, when the production of chicken eggs tempts to rise, the quantity of eggshell residue is also increased. Being rich in organic and inorganic compounds, the eggshell wastes, which are primarily considered waste and of no value, could be utilized in various forms.

Scope and approach

In this review, information about the potential of eggshell waste to be converted into a bioavailable source of calcium for food fortification is reviewed. Its potential applications in other fields such as pharmaceuticals and agriculture were discussed. In addition to this, several eggshell calcium-based novel fortified products were also reviewed.

Key findings and conclusions

  1. Bioavailable salts can be used to fortify food products like cakes, yogurt, sausages, biscuits, and coffee.
  2. Besides, eggshells can be used as soil enhancers and also as animal feed.
  3. Based on this literature review, cheaply available and easier to extract eggshell calcium can provide an ideal alternative source of natural calcium in an environmentally safe way.
  4. All the products and processes suggested in this paper present high economic, health, and environmental benefits.

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Published by RenSun Lee

Kia ora! Sustainability is at the core of my soul ever since I was a kid. I always strive to finish the food on my plate and live as a minimalist. I love to cut down on waste in order to live sustainably and harmoniously with our planet. This brings me to my passion as a Food Scientist to integrate new technologies into innovative and creative solutions to meet customer demands and market trends and to optimize products and processes for quality, savings and sustainability. To these goals, I have published a Journal on my work on sustainable packaging and patented a new Antimicrobial wash. Nothing is more satisfying than working hard and smart at the workplace and playing hard outside of working hours. I enjoy rejuvenating myself through spending quality time with my two adorable kids and my awesome soul mate and getting close to nature when possible, be it gardening, tramping or going to the beach. I also love to learn about our magnificent universe and how sustainability is working in the grand scheme of things. I strongly believe that Work, Life & Balance is the key to a healthy state of mind, both physically and mentally. I look forward to making a positive difference wherever and whenever I can. Through this Blog, I hope to catalog recent Food Trends and Food Technologies that I come across so that anyone who is interested can have access to it (articles and resources). Please use these resources at your discretion. On top of that, I would also like to share related news and technologies of the future that would help mankind advance towards a Type 1 Civilization. Please feel free to contact me if you would like to share and contribute to the “Resources“. I would like to thank you in advance for dropping by. I sincerely hope that you can benefit from the recent Food Trends and Food Technologies I catalogued. Kind regards | Ngā mihi RenSun Lee

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